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HTML Entities

Character entity references, or entities for short, enable you to use characters that cannot be expressed in the document's character encoding or that cannot be entered by a keyboard , e.g. copyright symbol ©.

What is HTML Entities

Some characters are reserved in HTML, e.g. you cannot use the less than (<) or greater than (>) signs or angle brackets within your text, because the browser could mistake them for markup, while some characters are not present on the keyboard like copyright symbol ©.

To display these special characters, they must be replaced with the character entities.

Frequently Used HTML Character Entities

Result Description Entity Name Numerical reference
  non-breaking space &nbsp; &#160;
< less than &lt; &#60;
> greater than &gt; &#62;
& ampersand &amp; &#38;
" quotation mark &quot; &#34;
' apostrophe &apos; &#39;
¢ cent &cent; &#162;
£ pound &pound; &#163;
¥ yen &yen; &#165;
euro &euro; &#8364;
© copyright &copy; &#169;
® registered trademark &reg; &#174;
trademark &trade; &#8482;

You can use numeric character references, instead of entity names. A key benefit of using numeric character references is that, they have stronger browser support, and can be used to specify any Unicode character, whereas entities are limited to a subset of this.

Note: Entities names are case sensitive! Check out HTML Character Entities reference for a complete list of character entities.

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