Array Functions
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PHP end() Function

Topic: PHP Array ReferencePrev|Next

Description

The end() function set the internal pointer of an array to its last element, and returns its value.

The following table summarizes the technical details of this function.

Return Value: Returns the value of the last element in the array, or FALSE if the array is empty.
Version: PHP 4+

Tip: Every array has an internal pointer that points to the current element in the array. When a new array is created, the current pointer is initialized to reference the first element in the array.


Syntax

The basic syntax of the end() function is given with:

end(array);

The following example shows the end() function in action.

<?php
// Sample array
$colors = array("red", "green", "blue", "orange", "yellow", "black");

// Getting the last element 
echo end($colors); // Prints: black
?>

Parameters

The end() function accepts the following parameters.

Parameter Description
array Required. Specifies the array to work on.

More Examples

Here're some more examples showing how end() function actually works:

The following example demonstrates how to get the last value from an associative array:

<?php
// Sample array
$alphabets = array("a"=>"apple", "b"=>"ball", "c"=>"cat", "d"=>"dog");

// Getting the last element's value
echo end($alphabets); // Prints: dog

// Getting the last element's key
echo key($alphabets); // Prints: d
?>

The end() function is commonly used along with the following functions:

  • current() – Returns the value of the current element in an array.
  • next() – Moves the internal pointer of an array to the next element, and returns its value.
  • prev() – Moves the internal pointer of an array to the previous element, and returns its value.
  • reset() – Set the internal pointer of an array to its first element, and returns its value.
  • key() – Returns the key of the current element in an array.

Here's an example that demonstrates how these functions basically work:

<?php
// Sample array
$colors = array("red", "green", "blue", "orange", "yellow", "black");

// Getting the values 
echo current($colors);  // Prints: red
echo end($colors);      // Prints: black
echo current($colors);  // Prints: black
echo prev($colors);     // Prints: yellow
echo current($colors);  // Prints: yellow
echo next($colors);     // Prints: black
echo current($colors);  // Prints: black
echo reset($colors);    // Prints: red
echo current($colors);  // Prints: red

// Getting the current element's key
echo key($colors);      // Prints: 0
?>
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