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JavaScript Math Reference

This chapter contains a brief overview of the properties and method of the global Math object.

The JavaScript Math Object

The JavaScript Math object is used to perform mathematical tasks. The Math object is a static built-in object, so you won't need to instantiate it, all its properties and methods can be accessed directly.

To learn more about Math, please check out the JavaScript math operations chapter.

Math Properties

The following table lists the standard properties of the Math object.

Property Description
E Returns Euler's number, the base of natural logarithms, e, approximately 2.718
LN2 Returns the natural logarithm of 2, approximately 0.693
LN10 Returns the natural logarithm of 10, approximately 2.302
LOG2E Returns the base 2 logarithm of e, approximately 1.442
LOG10E Returns the base 10 logarithm of e, approximately 0.434
PI Returns the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter (i.e. π). The approximate value of PI is 3.14159
SQRT1_2 Returns the square root of 1/2, approximately 0.707
SQRT2 Returns the square root of 2, approximately 1.414

Note: The Math object is just a collection of static functions and constants. The Math object is different from other built-in objects (e.g. Date, Array, String, etc.), because it has no constructor, so there is no way to create an instance of Math.


Math Methods

The following table lists the standard methods of the Math object.

Method Description
abs() Returns the absolute value of a number.
acos() Returns the arccosine of a number, in radians.
acosh() Returns the hyperbolic arccosine of a number.
asin() Returns the arcsine of a number, in radians
asinh() Returns the hyperbolic arcsine of a number.
atan() Returns the arctangent of a number, in radians.
atan2(y, x) Returns the arctangent of the quotient of its arguments.
atanh() Returns the hyperbolic arctangent of a number.
cbrt() Returns the cube root of a number.
ceil() Returns the next integer greater than or equal to a given number (rounding up).
cos() Returns the cosine of the specified angle. The angle must be specified in radians.
cosh() Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number.
exp(x) Returns ex, where x is the argument, and e is Euler's number (also known as Napier's constant), the base of the natural logarithms.
floor() Returns the next integer less than or equal to a given number (rounding down).
log() Returns the natural logarithm (base e) of a number.
max(x, y, ...) Returns the highest-valued number in a list of numbers.
min(x, y, ...) Returns the lowest-valued number in a list of numbers.
pow(x, y) Returns the base to the exponent power, that is, xy.
random() Returns a random number between 0 and 1 (including 0, but not 1).
round() Returns the value of a number rounded to the nearest integer.
sin() Returns the sign of a number (given in radians).
sinh() Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number.
sqrt() Returns the square root of a number.
tan() Returns the tangent of a number.
tanh() Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number.
trunc(x) Returns the integer part of a number by removing any fractional digits.

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