# JavaScript Math Reference

This chapter contains a brief overview of the properties and method of the global Math object.

## The JavaScript Math Object

The JavaScript Math object is used to perform mathematical tasks. The Math object is a static built-in object, so you won't need to instantiate it, all its properties and methods can be accessed directly.

To learn more about Math, please check out the JavaScript math operations chapter.

## Math Properties

The following table lists the standard properties of the Math object.

Property | Description |
---|---|

`E` |
Returns Euler's number, the base of natural logarithms, `e` , approximately 2.718 |

`LN2` |
Returns the natural logarithm of 2, approximately 0.693 |

`LN10` |
Returns the natural logarithm of 10, approximately 2.302 |

`LOG2E` |
Returns the base 2 logarithm of `e` , approximately 1.442 |

`LOG10E` |
Returns the base 10 logarithm of `e` , approximately 0.434 |

`PI` |
Returns the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter (i.e. `π` ). The approximate value of PI is 3.14159 |

`SQRT1_2` |
Returns the square root of 1/2, approximately 0.707 |

`SQRT2` |
Returns the square root of 2, approximately 1.414 |

**Note:** The Math object is just a collection of static functions and constants. The Math object is different from other built-in objects (e.g. Date, Array, String, etc.), because it has no constructor, so there is no way to create an instance of Math.

## Math Methods

The following table lists the standard methods of the Math object.

Method | Description |
---|---|

`abs()` |
Returns the absolute value of a number. |

`acos()` |
Returns the arccosine of a number, in radians. |

`acosh()` |
Returns the hyperbolic arccosine of a number. |

`asin()` |
Returns the arcsine of a number, in radians |

`asinh()` |
Returns the hyperbolic arcsine of a number. |

`atan()` |
Returns the arctangent of a number, in radians. |

`atan2(y, x)` |
Returns the arctangent of the quotient of its arguments. |

`atanh()` |
Returns the hyperbolic arctangent of a number. |

`cbrt()` |
Returns the cube root of a number. |

`ceil()` |
Returns the next integer greater than or equal to a given number (rounding up). |

`cos()` |
Returns the cosine of the specified angle. The angle must be specified in radians. |

`cosh()` |
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number. |

`exp(x)` |
Returns `e` , where `x` is the argument, and `e` is Euler's number (also known as Napier's constant), the base of the natural logarithms. |

`floor()` |
Returns the next integer less than or equal to a given number (rounding down). |

`log()` |
Returns the natural logarithm (base `e` ) of a number. |

`max(x, y, ...)` |
Returns the highest-valued number in a list of numbers. |

`min(x, y, ...)` |
Returns the lowest-valued number in a list of numbers. |

`pow(x, y)` |
Returns the base to the exponent power, that is, `x` . |

`random()` |
Returns a random number between 0 and 1 (including 0, but not 1). |

`round()` |
Returns the value of a number rounded to the nearest integer. |

`sin()` |
Returns the sign of a number (given in radians). |

`sinh()` |
Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number. |

`sqrt()` |
Returns the square root of a number. |

`tan()` |
Returns the tangent of a number. |

`tanh()` |
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number. |

`trunc(x)` |
Returns the integer part of a number by removing any fractional digits. |