# JavaScript Operators

In this tutorial you will learn how to manipulate or perform the operations on variables and values using the operators in JavaScript.

## What are Operators in JavaScript

Operators are symbols or keywords that tell the JavaScript engine to perform some sort of actions. For example, the addition (`+`

) symbol is an operator that tells JavaScript engine to add two variables or values, while the equal-to (`==`

), greater-than (`>`

) or less-than (`<`

) symbols are the operators that tells JavaScript engine to compare two variables or values, and so on.

The following sections describe the different operators used in JavaScript.

## JavaScript Arithmetic Operators

The arithmetic operators are used to perform common arithmetical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication etc. Here's a complete list of JavaScript's arithmetic operators:

Operator | Description | Example | Result |
---|---|---|---|

`+` |
Addition | `x + y` |
Sum of x and y |

`-` |
Subtraction | `x - y` |
Difference of x and y. |

`*` |
Multiplication | `x * y` |
Product of x and y. |

`/` |
Division | `x / y` |
Quotient of x and y |

`%` |
Modulus | `x % y` |
Remainder of x divided by y |

The following example will show you these arithmetic operators in action:

#### Example

Try this code »```
var x = 10;
var y = 4;
alert(x + y); // 0utputs: 14
alert(x - y); // 0utputs: 6
alert(x * y); // 0utputs: 40
alert(x / y); // 0utputs: 2.5
alert(x % y); // 0utputs: 2
```

## JavaScript Assignment Operators

The assignment operators are used to assign values to variables.

Operator | Description | Example | Is The Same As |
---|---|---|---|

`=` |
Assign | `x = y` |
`x = y` |

`+=` |
Add and assign | `x += y` |
`x = x + y` |

`-=` |
Subtract and assign | `x -= y` |
`x = x - y` |

`*=` |
Multiply and assign | `x *= y` |
`x = x * y` |

`/=` |
Divide and assign quotient | `x /= y` |
`x = x / y` |

`%=` |
Divide and assign modulus | `x %= y` |
`x = x % y` |

The following example will show you these assignment operators in action:

#### Example

Try this code »```
var x; // Declaring Variable
x = 10;
alert(x); // Outputs: 10
x = 20;
x += 30;
alert(x); // Outputs: 50
x = 50;
x -= 20;
alert(x); // Outputs: 30
x = 5;
x *= 25;
alert(x); // Outputs: 125
x = 50;
x /= 10;
alert(x); // Outputs: 5
x = 100;
x %= 15;
alert(x); // Outputs: 10
```

## JavaScript String Operators

There are two operators which can also used be for strings.

Operator | Description | Example | Result |
---|---|---|---|

`+` |
Concatenation | `str1 + str2` |
Concatenation of str1 and str2 |

`+=` |
Concatenation assignment | `str1 += str2` |
Appends the str2 to the str1 |

The following example will show you these string operators in action:

#### Example

Try this code »```
var str1 = "Hello";
var str2 = " World!";
alert(str1 + str2); // Outputs: Hello World!
str1 += str2;
alert(str1); // Outputs: Hello World!
```

## JavaScript Incrementing and Decrementing Operators

The increment/decrement operators are used to increment/decrement a variable's value.

Operator | Name | Effect |
---|---|---|

`++x` |
Pre-increment | Increments x by one, then returns x |

`x++` |
Post-increment | Returns x, then increments x by one |

`--x` |
Pre-decrement | Decrements x by one, then returns x |

`x--` |
Post-decrement | Returns x, then decrements x by one |

The following example will show you how increment and decrement operators actually work:

#### Example

Try this code »```
var x; // Declaring Variable
x = 10;
alert(++x); // Outputs: 11
alert(x); // Outputs: 11
x = 10;
alert(x++); // Outputs: 10
alert(x); // Outputs: 11
x = 10;
alert(--x); // Outputs: 9
alert(x); // Outputs: 9
x = 10;
alert(x--); // Outputs: 10
alert(x); // Outputs: 9
```

## JavaScript Logical Operators

The logical operators are typically used to combine conditional statements.

Operator | Name | Example | Result |
---|---|---|---|

`&&` |
And | `x && y` |
True if both x and y are true |

`||` |
Or | `x || y` |
True if either x or y is true |

`!` |
Not | `!x` |
True if x is not true |

The following example will show you how these logical operators actually work:

#### Example

Try this code »```
var year = 2018;
// Leap years are divisible by 400 or by 4 but not 100
if((year % 400 == 0) || ((year % 100 != 0) && (year % 4 == 0))){
alert(year + " is a leap year.");
} else{
alert(year + " is not a leap year.");
}
```

You will learn about conditional statements in JavaScript if/else chapter.

## JavaScript Comparison Operators

The comparison operators are used to compare two values in a Boolean fashion.

Operator | Name | Example | Result |
---|---|---|---|

`==` |
Equal | `x == y` |
True if x is equal to y |

`===` |
Identical | `x === y` |
True if x is equal to y, and they are of the same type |

`!=` |
Not equal | `x != y` |
True if x is not equal to y |

`!==` |
Not identical | `x !== y` |
True if x is not equal to y, or they are not of the same type |

`<` |
Less than | `x < y` |
True if x is less than y |

`>` |
Greater than | `x > y` |
True if x is greater than y |

`>=` |
Greater than or equal to | `x >= y` |
True if x is greater than or equal to y |

`<=` |
Less than or equal to | `x <= y` |
True if x is less than or equal to y |

The following example will show you these comparison operators in action:

#### Example

Try this code »```
var x = 25;
var y = 35;
var z = "25";
alert(x == z); // Outputs: true
alert(x === z); // Outputs: false
alert(x != y); // Outputs: true
alert(x !== z); // Outputs: true
alert(x < y); // Outputs: true
alert(x > y); // Outputs: false
alert(x <= y); // Outputs: true
alert(x >= y); // Outputs: false
```